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钢锭

2019-10-31
钢锭
详细介绍:

钢水经盛钢包注入铸模凝固形成钢锭。钢液在炼钢炉中冶炼完成后,必须铸成一定形状的锭或坯才能进行加工。用铸模铸成钢锭的工艺过程简称为铸锭。

钢锭至今仍是轧钢生产的主要原料。钢锭质量的优劣、锭型的状况以及其重量大小对轧钢生产有着十分重要的作用。在轧钢生产中除各类初轧机可选用钢锭作原料外,一些特殊用途轧机、部分中厚板轧机也用钢锭为原料,我国不少地方中小企业的开坯机成品轧机也选用小钢锭作原料。钢锭选择的内容主要是正确地选择钢锭种类、它的重量以及断面形状和尺寸大小。


钢锭的用途广泛,按照其经锻压、轧制成材的产品类型,可分为以下几类。


电力用钢


电力用钢包括核电、火电、风电、水电等用钢。

核电:用于核岛的核心部件,如蒸发器、主管道、堆芯支撑板、弯管板和发电机组的低压转子等大型部件,除要求高强度、高韧性、高均质性外,有的还要求耐核辐射,多采用电渣重熔钢锭制造,锭重达715t。


水电:大型水力发电站用发电机转子、机座、船闸闸门等,要求高强度、高韧性、高洁净度。


火电:超临界火力发电机的汽包、发电机座、汽轮发电机转子等,要求高温强度、高洁净度、抗蠕变性能。


风电:用于底座、立杆和风力发电机轴的制造。


机械制造用钢


机械制造业是钢锭的大用户,特别是目前我国已成为世界机械制造大国,大型机械不但要满足国内需求,还需要大规模出口。其中冶金机械中的大型矿山用破碎机、球磨机,大型高炉炉壳,转炉托圈、转轴及传动系统,宽厚板轧机工作辊、支承辊及万向接轴、主电机轴,无缝钢管轧机的浮动芯棒、限动芯棒和其他各类轧机的轧辊、轴承、轴承座等均由钢锭经锻造制作;大型矿山机械中的挖掘机铲斗、铲臂,起重机吊臂等也是如此。下图是5000~5500mm宽

厚板轧机的支承辊,直径Φ2200~2400mm,重240t。


高层建筑用钢


随着建筑业的发展,钢结构高层建筑层出不穷,如迪拜塔、上海中心等。200m以上的高层建筑为了抗震、防风和防火的需要,多做成钢结构的主框架,其结构可由钢锭轧成的特厚板,经剪裁加工、焊接制成,要求高强度、抗震性和Z向性能。


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The molten steel is injected into the mold through the ladle and solidified to form a steel ingot. After the molten steel is smelted in the steelmaking furnace, it must be cast into a certain shape of the ingot or billet for processing. The process of casting a steel ingot by a mold is simply referred to as an ingot.


Steel ingots are still the main raw material for rolling steel production. The quality of the ingot, the condition of the ingot type and its weight play a very important role in rolling steel production. In the steel rolling production, in addition to various types of roughing mills, steel ingots can be used as raw materials. Some special-purpose rolling mills and some medium-thick plate mills also use steel ingots as raw materials. In many local small and medium-sized enterprises, the mills for rolling mills also use small steel ingots as raw materials. . The selection of ingots is mainly to correctly select the type of ingot, its weight, and the shape and size of the section.


Steel ingots are widely used, and can be classified into the following categories according to the types of products that are forged and rolled.


Power steel


Power steel includes nuclear power, thermal power, wind power, hydropower and other steel.


Nuclear power: large components such as evaporators, main pipes, core support plates, elbow plates and low-voltage rotors of generator sets, except for high strength, high toughness and high homogeneity. It also requires nuclear radiation resistance, and is made of electroslag remelted steel ingots with an ingot weight of 715t.


Hydropower: Generator rotors, bases, ship lock gates, etc. for large hydroelectric power stations require high strength, high toughness and high cleanliness.


Thermal power: steam drums, generator bases, turbine generator rotors, etc. of supercritical thermal power generators require high temperature strength, high cleanliness and creep resistance.


Wind power: Used in the manufacture of bases, poles and wind turbine shafts.


Mechanical manufacturing steel


The machinery manufacturing industry is a large user of steel ingots. In particular, China has become a major machinery manufacturing country in the world. Large-scale machinery not only needs to meet domestic demand, but also needs large-scale exports. Among them, large-scale mine crushers, ball mills, large blast furnace shells, converter support rings, rotating shafts and transmission systems, wide and thick plate mill work rolls, backup rolls and universal joint shafts, main motor shafts, seamless steel tube mills Floating mandrels, mandrel bars and other types of rolling mill rolls, bearings, bearing blocks, etc. are all forged from steel ingots; the same is true for excavator buckets, shovel arms, crane booms, etc. in large mining machinery. The figure below is 5000~5500mm wide


The support roller of the plate mill has a diameter of Φ2200~2400mm and a weight of 240t.


High-rise building steel


With the development of the construction industry, high-rise steel structures emerge in an endless stream, such as the Burj Khalifa and the Shanghai Center. For the purpose of earthquake resistance, wind protection and fire prevention, high-rise buildings of more than 200m are mostly made into the main frame of steel structure. The structure can be made of special thick plate rolled from steel ingots. It is made by cutting and welding, and requires high strength, shock resistance and Z. To performance.

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