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原材料

2019-10-31
原材料
详细介绍:

锻造用料主要是各种成分的碳素钢和合金钢,其次是铝、镁、铜、钛等及其合金。材料的原始状态有棒料、铸锭、金属粉末和液态金属。 金属在变形前的横断面积与变形后的横断面积之比称为锻造比。正确地选择锻造比、合理的加热温度及保温时间、合理的始锻温度和终锻温度、合理的变形量及变形速度对提高产品质量、降低成本有很大关系。

一般的中小型锻件都用圆形或方形棒料作为坯料。棒料的晶粒组织和机械性能均匀、良好,形状和尺寸准确,表面质量好,便于组织批量生产。只要合理控制加热温度和变形条件,不需要大的锻造变形就能锻出性能优良的锻件。

铸锭仅用于大型锻件。铸锭是铸态组织,有较大的柱状晶和疏松的中心。因此必须通过大的塑性变形,将柱状晶破碎为细晶粒,将疏松压实,才能获得优良的金属组织和机械性能。

经压制和烧结成的粉末冶金预制坯,在热态下经无飞边模锻可制成粉末锻件。锻件粉末接近于一般模锻件的密度,具有良好的机械性能,并且精度高,可减少后续的切削加工。粉末锻件内部组织均匀,没有偏析,可用于制造小型齿轮等工件。但粉末的价格远高于一般棒材的价格,在生产中的应用受到一定限制。

对浇注在模膛的液态金属施加静压力,使其在压力作用下凝固、结晶、流动、塑性变形和成形,就可获得所需形状和性能的模锻件。液态金属模锻是介于压铸和模锻间的成形方法,特别适用于一般模锻难于成形的复杂薄壁件。

锻造用料除了通常的材料,如各种成分的碳素钢和合金钢,其次是铝、镁、铜、钛等及其合金之外,铁基高温合金,镍基高温合金,钴基高温合金的变形合金也采用锻造或轧制方式完成,只是这些合金由于其塑性区相对较窄,所以锻造难度会相对较大,不同材料的加热温度,开锻温度与终锻温度都有严格的要求。


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The forging materials are mainly carbon steel and alloy steel of various compositions, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and the like and alloys thereof. The raw state of the material is bar, ingot, metal powder and liquid metal. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the metal before deformation to the cross-sectional area after deformation is called the forging ratio. Correct selection of forging ratio, reasonable heating temperature and holding time, reasonable initial forging temperature and final forging temperature, reasonable deformation and deformation speed have a great relationship to improve product quality and reduce cost.


Generally, small and medium-sized forgings use round or square bars as blanks. The grain structure and mechanical properties of the bar are uniform and good, the shape and size are accurate, and the surface quality is good, which is convenient for mass production. As long as the heating temperature and deformation conditions are properly controlled, high-quality forgings can be forged without requiring large forging deformation.


Ingots are only used for large forgings. The ingot is an as-cast structure with large columnar crystals and a loose center. Therefore, it is necessary to break the columnar crystal into fine crystal grains by large plastic deformation, and loosely compact, in order to obtain excellent metal structure and mechanical properties.


The powder metallurgy preform which is pressed and sintered can be made into a powder forging by hot forging without flashing. Forging powder is close to the density of general die forgings, has good mechanical properties, and has high precision, which can reduce subsequent cutting. The powder forgings have a uniform internal structure and are not segregated and can be used to manufacture workpieces such as small gears. However, the price of powder is much higher than the price of ordinary bars, and its application in production is limited.


By applying static pressure to the liquid metal poured in the mold to solidify, crystallize, flow, plastically deform and form under pressure, a die forging of desired shape and performance can be obtained. Liquid metal die forging is a forming method between die casting and die forging, and is particularly suitable for complex thin-walled parts which are difficult to form by general die forging.


Forging materials in addition to the usual materials, such as various components of carbon steel and alloy steel, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and other alloys, iron-based superalloys, nickel-based superalloys, cobalt-based superalloys The deformed alloys are also finished by forging or rolling, except that the alloys are relatively narrow in plasticity, so the forging difficulty is relatively large, and the heating temperature, opening and forging temperature and final forging temperature of different materials have strict requirements.

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